Mineral LusterWhat Is Luster?
Luster is the light-reflecting characteristics of a mineral specimen.
is a diverse material. This gallery includes photos of sand from around the world.
Mineral HardnessMohs Hardness Scale
is a set of reference minerals used for classroom hardness testing.
Hardness PicksHardness Picks
- Test for hardness with precise and easy-to-use hardness picks.
- A porous limestone composed almost entirely of fossil debris.
Mount EtnaMount Etna
- The most active volcano in Europe continues an eruption that started in 2001.
Largest HurricanesLargest Hurricanes
Are they determined by wind speed, value of damage, most deaths?
Volcanic ExplosivityVolcanic Explosivity
- Rating volcanic eruptions based upon the volume of tephra ejected.
The Acid TestThe Acid Test
- Geologists use dilute hydrochloric acid to identify carbonate minerals.
Blue FlamesBlue Flames
and the largest highly acidic lake in the world at Kawah Ijen Volcano.
Ruby and SapphireRuby and Sapphire
are the 2nd and 3rd most popular colored stones in the United States.
Rock and Mineral KitsRock & Mineral Kits
The best way to learn about rocks and minerals is with specimens!
Types of MapsTypes of Maps
- Explore some of the most popular types of maps that have been made.
- Galleries of igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic rock photos with descriptions.
Rock TumblersRock Tumblers
- All about rock tumblers and rock tumbling. Read before you buy a tumbler.
Mars MeteoritesMars Meteorites
Mars rovers have found dozens of meteorites while exploring the red planet.
Utica ShaleUtica Shale
is a major source of oil, natural gas and natural gas liquids in PA, OH and WV.
- the only important ore of mercury. Used in pigments until its toxicity was realized.
is an orange to pink gemstone, a variety of beryl, that is growing rapidly in popularity.
OpalsPictures of Opal
- A collection of different types of opal from all around the world and Mars too!
US Diamond MinesUS Diamond Mines
- Did you know that diamonds have been mined in the United States?
Fool*s GoldFool*s Gold
is a name used for pyrite when its brassy color fools people looking for gold.
Geology ToolsGeology Tools
Rock hammers, field bags, hand lenses, maps, hardness picks, gold pans.
Watch out for Ticks!Ticks
are a problem for geologists in some areas. Learn to recognize and avoid them.
are amorphous naturally-occurring inorganic solids that lack crystallinity.
American GemstonesMined in America
- Small mines in the United States produce a diversity of beautiful gemstones.
is a purple silicate mineral, found only in Russia, used as a gem material.
Underwater VolcanoHawaii*s Next Island
could be growing in the Pacific Ocean right now. Its name is Lo*ihi.
- a manganese mineral used as an ore, a pink gem and an ornamental stone.
is a metamorphic rock with properties that make it suitable for a variety of projects.
Methane HydrateMethane Hydrate
deposits contain more fuel value than all other fossil fuels combined.
is the third hardest mineral. It is also the mineral of ruby and sapphire.
Colored DiamondsColored Diamonds
are diamonds with a noticeable body color. They can sell for over $1M/carat.
is a feldspar mineral that sometimes exhibits an iridescent play-of-color.
are gems assigned to the month of a person*s birth. They are popular gifts in the U.S.
June 6th 1912Novarupta
- The most powerful volcanic eruption of the 20th century occurred in the U.S.A.
Wall MapsWall Maps
- Wall maps of the world, continents, states and the USA.
look like ordinary rocks on the outside but can be spectacular inside!
- Used as an ore of copper, a pigment, ornamental stone and gem material.
- The rock that has quickly transformed the oil and gas industry.
- The intrusive igneous rock that underlies continents and countertops.
Ethiopian OpalEthiopian Opal
- The new opal heavyweight that might give Australia a run.
What is Geology?What is Geology?
The study of Earth materials, structures, processes and life over time.
Geology BooksGeology Books
- A variety of books for reference, field trips, reading and more.
What Is The Moho?What Is The Moho?
The Mohorovicic Discontinuity is the mantle/crust boundary.
UV Mineral LampPortable UV Lamp
- Short and long wave UV for fluorescent mineral viewing.
- Colorful images and articles about diamonds and colored stones.
Expansive SoilExpansive Soil
causes more damage than floods, hurricanes & tornadoes combined.
Plate TectonicsPlate Tectonics
- Articles and maps about plate tectonics and the interior of Earth.
Ant Hill GarnetsAnt Hill Garnets
- tiny gems that ants haul to the surface and discard on their anthill. Honest!
Rock ArtRock Art
- People have been marking on rocks for thousands of years.
Petrified WoodPetrified Wood
is a fossil that forms when silica replaces and infills the cavities of wood.
Bear AttacksBear Attacks
- Knowing how to react to a bear encounter or attack could save your life.
- Learn about the properties of diamond, its many uses, and diamond discoveries.
Waterproof PaperWaterproof Paper
- Don't take chances with your field notes and maps. Use waterproof paper.
is metamorphic rock formed when sandstone is subjected to heat and pressure.
An extrusive igneous rock with a high silica content, produced from granitic magma.
Lapis LazuliLapis Lazuli
- a metamorphic rock and the most popular blue opaque gemstone in history.
Tallest MountainTallest Mountain
- Everest has rivals in tallness, altitude and distance to the center of Earth.
Hand LensHand Lens
A 10-power folding magnifier in a metal case. A frequently used lab and field tool.
Crater of DiamondsCrater of Diamonds
- The only diamond mine in the world where you can be the miner.
Rare Earth ElementsRare Earths
- Special materials used in electronics, defense, medical & many other products.
Gem SilicaGem Silica
is a blue chalcedony colored by copper. It is the rarest and most valuable chalcedony.
What is a Geyser?What is a Geyser?
Photos and information about geysers in many parts of the world.
Fluorescent MineralsFluorescent Minerals
and rocks glow with spectacular colors under ultraviolet light.
is the transparent variety of quartz with a yellow to orange to reddish color.
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- Rocks that were once parts of planets or large asteroids.
- The primary ore of titanium and source of most titanium dioxide.
Field CoursesField Courses
- Over 80 field courses for undergraduate geology students.
Cave of the HandsCave of the Hands
is a cave where ancient people painted hands about 9000 years ago.
is the most popular green gemstone in the United States and most of the world.
Herkimer DiamondsHerkimer Diamonds
Doubly-terminated quartz crystals used as specimens and gems.
- The most important ore of iron. A source of mineral pigment since prehistory.
Lightning Strikes MapLightning Strikes Map
by NASA shows the worldwide distribution of lightning activity.
- A bluish-green gem material that has been used for over 6000 years.
- Articles about volcanoes, volcanic hazards and eruptions past and present.
Don*t Go To JailKnow the Rules
before removing rocks, fossils or minerals from public or private property.
is a chromite host rock, a source of diamonds and a possible carbon dioxide sink.
- an extremely colorful mineral and gem material.
is the primary ore of zirconium and a gemstone that is available in many colors.
Cinder ConesCinder Cones
are the smallest, simplest, and most common type of volcano.
Rock SaltRock Salt
is a sedimentary rock composed of the mineral halite. It has many uses!
Mineral RightsMineral Rights
- Who owns the minerals under your land? Who wants to buy them?
Gifts That RockGifts That Rock
- What are the most popular gift items in the Geology.com store?
What is a Maar?What is a Maar?
The second most common volcanic landscape feature on Earth.
Homeowners InsuranceHomeowners Insurance
might not cover earthquake, hurricane and other geohazard damage.
- Abundant in Earth*s mantle. A constituent of meteorites. The gem peridot.
100+ Gemstones100+ Gems
- Photos of over 100 beautiful gems ranging from the popular to the obscure.
was unknown until a few decades ago but it has erupted into wide popularity.
Fire OpalFire Opal
is a transparent to translucent opal with a yellow, orange or red background color.
Uses of TalcTalc
is a soft mineral used in cosmetics, paper, paint, ceramics and many other products.
DeLorme AtlasTopo Maps
- The DeLorme Atlas is an entire state of topo maps in one convenient book.
Rocks on MarsRocks on Mars
Many of the rocks found on Mars are not very different from Earth rocks.
Tallest WaterfallAngel Falls
in Venezuela is the tallest waterfall in the world - it is 3212 feet tall.
Horizontal DrillingHorizontal Drilling
has opened new resources and significantly improved productivity.
- The most important ore of copper for over five thousand years.
is a variety of limestone formed from fine-grained marine sediment known as ooze.
Debris FlowsDebris Flows
are moving masses of loose mud, sand, soil, rock and water.
Mount VesuviusMount Vesuvius
- geology, history, maps, facts and more about the Vesuvius eruptions.
Largest VolcanoesLargest Volcano
- That title is shared by Tamu Massif, Mauna Kea and Ojos del Salado.
Uses of MarbleThe Uses of Marble
are numerous and diverse. You will be surprised by how it is used.
Pyroxene MineralsPyroxene Minerals
are a group of chain silicate minerals found in igneous and metamorphic rocks.